EPO (Erythropoietin) – Product Information
Erythropoietin (also known as EPO) is a glycoprotein hormone that stimulates the production of red blood cells (erythropoiesis) in the body. It is primarily produced by the kidneys, although in fetuses, the liver is the primary site of production of this hormone.
Research has shown that Erythropoietin increases the production of red blood cells and protects them against destruction. Erythropoietin stimulating agents (ESAs) have also been found to prevent anemia and reduce the need for red blood cell transfusion during surgery.
PureRawz sells Erythropoietin for laboratory and research purposes only.
In the context of research, it is advisable to opt for bacteriostatic water when reconstituting substances rather than sterile water.
What is Erythropoietin?
Erythropoietin (EPO) is a hormone that stimulates red blood cell production. In adults, this hormone is primarily produced by the kidney’s peritubular cells (smooth muscle cells). However, in newborns and developing fetuses, the liver is the main site of EPO production. [R]
Apart from stimulating the production of red blood cells, endogenous EPO protects the red blood cells against damage. Without fresh red blood cells, the body tissues and organs might experience hypoxia (lack of oxygen), which may cause cell death in the area, or an illness. [R]
Normal EPO levels are crucial for a person’s health. Higher-than-usual endogenous EPO levels are an indicator of anemia, a condition in which the body produces more red blood cells than needed. In persons with anemia, low or normal EPO levels may indicate kidney disease. [R]
What are Erythropoietin Stimulating Agents?
Erythropoietin-stimulating agents, also known as ESAs, are man-made forms of endogenous erythropoietin. All EPO drugs available on the market fall into this category. ESAs are produced by cloning the human erythropoietin gene (EPO gene) with recombinant DNA technology. [R]
ESAs work in the same manner as EPO, such as by stimulating the bone marrow to produce more red blood cells. However, while endogenous EPO has no side effects (your body automatically regulates its levels), the ESA drugs might pose life-threatening risks to your health. [R]
Two ESAs have been approved by the FDA. They are used for the treatment of chronic (long-lasting) kidney disease and end-stage kidney disease. ESAs are also given to patients who have cancer. Around 30 to 90% of cancer patients have anemia, often caused by chemotherapy. [R]
How does Erythropoietin Work?
Erythropoietin acts by binding to receptors on the red cell progenitor surface. This action results in the production, differentiation, and proliferation of mature red blood cells. Once the blood cells are released, EPO acts on them to protect them against damage. [R]
EPO also binds to erythropoietin receptors (EPOR) in the brain, heart, and skeletal muscle. Animal and cell-based models have shown that EPO affects the maintenance and repair of the three organs. All in all, endogenous EPO acts on multiple tissues in the body. [R]
What follows is a summary of the existing clinical and preclinical research on EPO. The information presented in this section is for educational purposes only and doesn’t constitute medical advice. PureRawz sells recombinant human EPO for laboratory and research use only.
Erythropoietin and Anemia
The US Food and Drug Administration (FDA) has approved at least two ESAs for treating anemia associated with chronic kidney disease (CKD). CKD is a global problem that has affected over 800 million people worldwide and over 30 million people in the US alone. [R][R]
Various studies have shown that ESAs can benefit patients with chronic renal failure anemia. ESAs have been shown to raise hemoglobin levels, decrease blood transfusion symptoms, and improve the quality of life and the symptoms related to anemia. [R]
Erythropoietin and Blood Transfusion
Patients at a high risk of blood loss and undergoing elective, non-cardiac, or non-vascular surgery often need blood transfusions during the surgery. [R]
A systematic review of multiple clinical trials has reported that ESAs reduce the need for blood transfusions in patients undergoing major surgery, with anticipated high blood loss.
ESAs lessen the need for a blood transfusion by increasing the release of red blood cells. [R]
Erythropoietin and Brain Injury
In clinical studies, ESAs have been shown to protect the brains of newborns against various brain injuries, highlighting their neuroprotective effects.
A study of 200 low-birth-weight infants reported that ESAs protected the brain from intraventricular hemorrhage (IVH), a condition in which the brain is filled with blood. Furthermore, the group of infants treated with ESAs fared better on intelligence tests than those who weren’t treated. [R]
Another study of 45 newborns found ESAs protecting the brain against hypoxic-ischemic encephalopathy, a condition caused by a lack of blood flow and oxygen to the brain. As in the above study, newborns who were treated with ESAs had fewer developmental and neurological disabilities. [R]
Erythropoietin and Oral Mucositis
Oral therapy is a condition characterized by irritation and tissue swelling in the mouth. It is one of the most common and debilitating complications of chemotherapy and radiation therapy.
In a randomized, placebo-controlled trial, 80 patients with oral mucositis were given an EPO mouthwash for 14 days. Final results from the study indicate that the incidence, as well as the duration of the disease, were much lower in the EPO group than in the control group. [R]
Erythropoietin and Gingival Graft
Gingival graft refers to a condition in which the patient’s gums are receding. The surgery performed to correct this condition is called gingival graft surgery.
In a clinical study, 12 patients were enlisted who had just undergone a gingival graft surgery. One group was administered an EPO gel at the donor site, while the other was given a standard gel. The final results indicated that the EPO gel expedited the healing time and reduced inflammation. [R]
Frequently Asked Questions
Where do you get EPO?
In adults, EPO is produced by the peritubular cells of the kidney. In newborns and fetuses, the liver is the main site of production of this hormone. The normal range of EPO hormone in the body falls between 2.6 and 18.5 milliunits per milliliter (mU/mL).
How can I produce more erythropoietin?
According to a study, post-sauna bathing increased the volume of red blood cells in the bodies of competitive male runners. However, whether or not sauna bathing indirectly produces red blood cells in the bodies of non-athletes needs to be verified by clinical studies. [R]
What are the symptoms of low erythropoietin?
There are various symptoms of erythropoietin deficiency, including fatigue, breathlessness, light-headedness, headaches, heart palpitations, and weakness. Speak to a qualified medical professional to know more about the complications of low EPO synthesis.
What are the advantages of erythropoietin?
In clinical studies, ESAs cause high blood pressure, swelling, fever, nausea, and dizziness. Pure red cell aplasia is a rare side effect of these drugs. Pure Rawz sells Erythropoietin for laboratory and research purposes only. [R]
Where to Buy Erythropoietin Online?
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Erythropoietin is an endogenously produced hormone. It increases red blood cell production and protects them against damage. Pure Rawz sells recombinant human Erythropoietin for laboratory and research purposes only and not for human consumption.
This information is for educational purposes only and does not constitute medical advice. THE PRODUCTS DESCRIBED HEREIN ARE FOR LABORATORY AND RESEARCH USE ONLY. All clinical research must be conducted with oversight from the appropriate Institutional Review Board (IRB). All preclinical research must be conducted with oversight from the appropriate Institutional Animal Care and Use Committee (IACUC) following the guidelines of the Animal Welfare Act (AWA).
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