VIP (Vasoactive Intestinal Peptide)

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Description

VIP (Vasoactive Intestinal Peptide) – Product Information

  • VIP peptide is offered as 10mg lyophilized powder.
  • In the context of research, it is advisable to opt for bacteriostatic water when reconstituting substances rather than sterile water.
VIP (Vasoactive Intestinal Peptide)
CAS Number 69698-54-0
Molar Mass 3326.8 g/mol
Chemical Formula C147H237N43O43S
IUPAC Name H-His-Ser-Asp-Ala-Val-Phe-Thr-Asp-Asn-Tyr-Thr-Arg-Leu-Arg-Lys-Gln-Met-Ala-Val-Lys-Lys-Tyr-Leu-Asn-Ser-Ile-Leu-Asn-OH

What is Vasoactive Intestinal Peptide?

Vasoactive intestinal peptide (VIP) stands out as a member of the glucagon/secretin superfamily. Composed of 28 amino acids, VIP plays a crucial role in various physiological processes and has shown potential therapeutic applications. Although it is important to emphasize that VIP should be used solely for research purposes and not for human consumption, understanding its properties and potential benefits can pave the way for innovative scientific exploration.

VIP was first discovered in 1970 when it was isolated from the porcine duodenum, revealing its potent vasodilator and hypotensive properties. While the gastrointestinal tract harbors the largest concentration of VIP in the human body, this peptide has also been found in other internal organs and systems, expanding its influence beyond digestion.[R]

The intricate web of VIP’s functions spans multiple domains. Initially identified as a neurotransmitter or neuromodulator in the central and peripheral nervous systems, VIP plays a role in autonomic and sensory structures, neuronal cells, and nerve fibers. Surprisingly, VIP’s reach extends beyond the nervous system, with its presence observed in cells of the immune system, such as eosinophils, mast cells, and lymphocytes. In this context, VIP assumes a potential role akin to a “cytokine-like peptide.” [R]

How Does VIP Work?

The VIP pathway has potential mechanisms through which it can affect body fat.

  1. It plays a role in regulating pancreatic function by stimulating insulin and glucagon secretion, which can impact energy metabolism and fat storage. VIP and a similar neuropeptide called PACAP are found in the pancreas and bind to receptors that influence insulin and glucagon release. These peptides are involved in glucose-dependent insulin secretion and also stimulate glucagon secretion.
  2. The VIP pathway may influence body fatness by regulating feeding behavior. In the hypothalamus, which is a crucial region for controlling food intake, VIP and PACAP have been shown to inhibit feeding in various animal models. They are involved in the regulation of appetite and food intake through specific pathways that control hunger and satiety.
  3. The VIP pathway can affect energy metabolism and obesity risk by influencing psychomotor behaviors. Studies in goldfish have demonstrated that VIP administration leads to decreased locomotor activity, potentially resulting in increased fat deposition.
  4. VIP is involved in regulating circadian rhythms in mammals, which can impact feeding behavior and fat deposition. The suprachiasmatic nucleus in the brain is responsible for controlling the body’s daily rhythms, and VIP and its receptor VPAC2 play a role in synchronizing these rhythms. Disruption of circadian rhythms has been associated with metabolic disorders such as obesity, diabetes, and cardiovascular disease.

These various mechanisms demonstrate the potential links between the VIP pathway and body fat regulation. Further research is needed to fully understand the complex interactions and implications for human diseases. [R]

VIP Research

Numerous animal and human studies have been conducted on the potential application of vasoactive intestinal peptide fragments. Below are some of the relevant findings:

VIP and Inflammation related conditions

Vasoactive intestinal peptide (VIP) is a neuropeptide known for its ability to modulate various aspects of the immune response. Studies have shown that VIP can mitigate the harmful effects of septic shock by inhibiting the production of pro-inflammatory agents and promoting the production of anti-inflammatory cytokines in activated macrophages. In this study, researchers investigated the specific involvement of VIP receptors in the anti-inflammatory effects of VIP using selective agonists. The results demonstrated that both the type 1 VIP receptor (VPAC1) agonist and the type 2 VIP receptor (VPAC2) agonist protected mice from lethal endotoxemia by suppressing pro-inflammatory mediators and stimulating anti-inflammatory cytokines. Furthermore, VIP and the VPAC1 agonist showed additional benefits by reducing the expression of co-stimulatory molecules and suppressing T helper cell activation. These findings suggest that VIP, along with its receptor agonists, may offer a promising therapeutic alternative to specific cytokine antibodies or antagonists for inflammation-related conditions. [R]

Given that VIP and its agonists can influence multiple cytokines and inflammatory factors, they hold promise as more efficient alternatives to specific cytokine antibodies or antagonists. By targeting VIP and its receptors, it may be possible to modulate the immune response and restore the balance between pro-inflammatory and anti-inflammatory processes. Further research is warranted to explore the full therapeutic potential of VIP and its receptor agonists in various inflammatory conditions.

VIP and Pseudomonas aeruginosa-induced Corneal Infection

Pseudomonas aeruginosa is a common Gram-negative pathogen that is often associated with the development of microbial keratitis, a serious condition that can lead to vision loss. The complications of bacterial keratitis caused by P. aeruginosa include structural changes in the cornea, as well as the potential development of secondary glaucoma and cataracts. The infection progresses rapidly and is characterized by inflammation, corneal ulceration, and tissue destruction. The host’s inflammatory response plays a crucial role in the pathogenesis of this sight-threatening disease. This study aimed to investigate the involvement of vasoactive intestinal peptide (VIP) in the development of the host’s response to P. aeruginosa-induced corneal infection.

A study conducted on two strains of mice, C57BL/6 (B6) and BALB/c, aimed to investigate the involvement of VIP in the development of the resistant response against Pseudomonas aeruginosa corneal infection. In susceptible mice, infection led to increased VIP levels, while resistant mice had lower levels. Treating susceptible mice with a synthetic form of VIP improved their resistance to corneal damage and reduced inflammation. VIP also influenced the production of proinflammatory and anti-inflammatory molecules, reducing harmful cytokines and increasing beneficial ones. [R]

The findings provide valuable insights into the potential therapeutic applications of VIP in treating bacterial keratitis and preventing vision loss. Further research in this area may uncover new strategies for managing corneal infections and developing targeted therapies. It is important to note that while these findings are promising, further studies are needed to

VIP on Canine Inflammatory Bowel Diseases

Canine inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) is a challenging condition in veterinary medicine, with unknown causes and difficult diagnosis and treatment. The study aims to investigate the role of vasoactive intestinal polypeptide (VIP) in the development of IBD. VIP is an important substance produced by the enteric nervous system, which regulates gastrointestinal functions. By examining the density of VIP-containing nerve fibers in the intestines, the study reveals how VIP is involved in the disease processes of canine IBD. During the early stages of IBD, there was a decrease in the density of VIP-LI nerve fibers, while later stages showed an increase in VIP-like activity. These changes demonstrate the active involvement of VIP in the disease processes of canine IBD. VIP is believed to have protective and adaptive properties that help maintain balance in the inflamed intestines and counteract the harmful effects of proinflammatory factors.[R]

This research opens up possibilities for further exploration and potential therapeutic interventions targeting VIP and the enteric nervous system in the management of canine IBD. Understanding the relationship between VIP and canine IBD is a significant advancement in veterinary medicine. Further research in this area has the potential to improve the diagnosis, treatment, and management of this challenging condition in dogs.

VIP on Vaginal Lubrication

A study investigates the effects of VIP on normal, nonpregnant female test subjects’ vaginal lubrication and blood flow. The results of this study indicate that vasoactive intestinal polypeptide (VIP) may play a role in genital vasodilation and increased vaginal lubrication that occurs during sexual arousal. Normal, nonpregnant test subjects who received an intravenous infusion of VIP experienced a significant increase in vaginal blood flow and lubrication. These results suggest that VIP may play a role in enhancing sexual arousal and promoting vaginal comfort during sexual activity.[R]

Further research is necessary to uncover the precise mechanisms by which VIP influences these processes and to explore its potential therapeutic implications. Understanding the role of VIP in vaginal physiology could provide valuable insights for individuals experiencing difficulties with sexual arousal and vaginal lubrication, potentially leading to novel treatment approaches in the future.

VIP on Penile Erection

The vasoactive intestinal polypeptide (VIP) is a substance that has been investigated for its potential involvement in penile erection. A study examined the localization of VIP in the male genitourinary tract and explore its effect on penile smooth muscle. By utilizing radioimmunoassay and immunohistochemistry techniques, the research shed light on the presence of VIP and its potential role in the control of penile erection. Researchers conducted in vitro experiments using strips of smooth muscle from the corpus cavernosum of the Vervet monkey and human. The results showed that VIP induced a dose-dependent relaxation of the smooth muscle at concentrations of 6 × 10−8 mol × L−1 and 6 × 10−7 mol × L−1. This suggests that VIP may act as an inhibitory neurotransmitter involved in the nervous control of penile erection. The presence of VIP immunoreactive nerve fibers in erectile tissue suggests a role in the neural control of erection. Moreover, the in vitro experiments demonstrated that VIP can induce relaxation of penile smooth muscle, further supporting its inhibitory neurotransmitter function in penile erection. [R]

These findings contribute to our understanding of the complex mechanisms underlying penile physiology and the role of VIP in this process. However, further research is necessary to fully elucidate the precise mechanisms by which VIP exerts its effects and its potential as a therapeutic target for erectile dysfunction.

Vasoactive Intestinal Peptide and Lung Scarring

Vasoactive intestinal peptide (VIP) is a substance found in the lungs that may have anti-scarring effects. However, the exact role of VIP in lung scarring is not well understood. A study explored the protective effects of VIP against lung scarring in a mouse model induced by bleomycin (BLM). The findings suggest that VIP could be a potential drug for treating lung scarring, also known as pulmonary fibrosis.

The study involved introducing VIP into the lungs of mice exposed to BLM using a special technique. The results showed that VIP reduced lung tissue damage, decreased the accumulation of scar tissue, and inhibited the expression of a marker called alpha-smooth muscle actin (α-SMA) associated with scarring. In laboratory tests, VIP suppressed the process called epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT) induced by a protein called transforming growth factor-beta 1 (TGF-β1) and prevented excessive scar tissue production by lung cells.

These findings indicate the therapeutic potential of VIP for pulmonary fibrosis. The study is conducted on an animal model, so the efficacy and safety of VIP in human studies remain unknown. Additional research is required to fully comprehend the therapeutic potential of VIP and its fibrotic pathways in other inflammatory diseases, such as cardiac fibrosis.

VIP on Neurodegenerative Disorders

In numerous brain disorders, including multiple sclerosis, Parkinson’s disease, and Alzheimer’s disease, unrestrained inflammation leads to the death of a significant number of nerve cells. In an effort to discover better treatments, scientists have been studying molecules known as “microglia-deactivating factors.”

One of these molecules, called vasoactive intestinal peptide (VIP), has a powerful anti-inflammatory effect. It has been shown to protect against other inflammatory disorders like endotoxic shock and rheumatoid arthritis. In this study, researchers wanted to see if VIP could also protect against inflammation-related brain cell death, both in laboratory experiments and in living animals. They also examined the role of activated microglia and their harmful products in this process. The results were encouraging. VIP demonstrated a clear ability to protect nerve cells from inflammation-induced damage. It achieved this by reducing the production of proinflammatory substances released by activated microglia, such as tumor necrosis factor α, interleukin-1β, and nitric oxide. Specifically, when brain trauma was induced in the experiments, VIP prevented the death of nearby neurons by reducing the inflammatory response of microglia. [R]

These findings suggest that VIP could be a valuable neuroprotective treatment for conditions where inflammation-induced brain cell death occurs. By reducing inflammation and its harmful effects on microglia, VIP shows promise in safeguarding the central nervous system from pathological conditions. Further research is needed to fully understand how VIP works and to explore its potential as a therapy for neurodegenerative disorders and cognitive function associated with inflammation-induced brain cell death.

VIP on Obesity

Vasoactive Intestinal Peptide (VIP) is a neuropeptide that plays a significant role in various physiological functions in the central and peripheral nervous system as well as the gastrointestinal tract. Studies have indicated that VIP may regulate feeding behavior in different species. A study investigated the influence of endogenous VIP on appetite regulation, feeding behavior, metabolic hormones, and body composition. It revealed that mice lacking VIP (VIP−/−) exhibited reduced body weight and fat mass, along with increased lean mass as they aged. VIP−/− mice also showed disrupted circadian feeding patterns, lacking regular nocturnal/diurnal feeding behavior. Altered secretion of metabolic hormones, such as adiponectin, GLP-1, leptin, PYY, and insulin, was observed in VIP−/− mice. These results highlight the involvement of VIP in the control of appetite, feeding behavior, body composition, and the regulation of metabolic hormones. The absence of VIP led to changes in body weight and fat mass accumulation, disrupted feeding patterns, and alterations in the secretion of metabolic hormones. Understanding the role of VIP in these processes provides potential insights for targeting VIP signaling in the treatment of obesity.[R]

Further research is needed to explore the precise mechanisms by which VIP influences these factors and to investigate the therapeutic implications of targeting VIP for obesity management and secretion

Side Effects: [R]

VIP may be used as a treatment, but its negative effects must be considered. VIP side effects were identified in a study. Headaches, nausea, photophobia (sensitivity to light), phonophobia (sensitivity to sound), flushing, warm emotions, and heart palpitations were the most common adverse effects. [R]

Summary of VIP

Vasoactive intestinal peptide (VIP) is a neuropeptide with diverse physiological roles and potential therapeutic applications. It influences various bodily functions, including neurotransmission, immune response, appetite regulation, and body composition. VIP has shown promising effects in research areas such as potent anti-inflammatory effects, corneal infections, bowel disease, sexual health, neurodegenerative disorders, obesity, and more. While further research is needed to fully understand its mechanisms and potential side effects, VIP presents exciting possibilities for scientific exploration and potential medical interventions. Several studies have also shown that VIP helps improve intestinal barrier homeostasis, pancreatic juice, blood pressure, gastric acid secretion, and prolactin secretion.

FAQ

What is the molecular weight?

The molecular weight of VIP is 2645.1g/mol

Is VIP safe?

Vasoactive Intestinal Peptide (VIP) is a naturally occurring neuropeptide in the human body that has been extensively studied for its physiological functions. While VIP itself is not currently FDA-approved as a standalone medication for any specific disease, it has been investigated in clinical trials for various conditions, including pulmonary disorders and inflammatory diseases.

It is important to note that a synthetic form of VIP called Aviptadil has received specific recognition in the treatment of critical lung disease in COVID-19 cases with respiratory failure. Aviptadil has been granted Fast Track Designation by the U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA) for this purpose. However, it is crucial to understand that Aviptadil’s FDA Fast Track Designation is limited to its application in treating critical COVID-19 cases with respiratory failure and does not extend to other diseases or conditions.[R]

As research and clinical trials continue, the safety, efficacy, and potential applications of VIP in various diseases will be further explored.

Where to buy VIP Online

PureRawz is one of the reputable brands in the market and the best place to buy VIP For Sale online. PureRawz sells VIP in Peptide Form at 10mg.

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Disclaimer

This information is for educational purposes only and does not constitute medical advice. THE PRODUCTS DESCRIBED HEREIN ARE FOR LABORATORY AND RESEARCH USE ONLY. All clinical research must be conducted with oversight from the appropriate Institutional Review Board (IRB). All preclinical research must be conducted with oversight from the appropriate Institutional Animal Care and Use Committee (IACUC) following the guidelines of the Animal Welfare Act (AWA).

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