Flammulina Velutipes 30% – Product Information
What is Flammulina Velutipes?
Asian countries have a rich history of utilizing mushrooms for their medicinal properties. Flammulina velutipes (F. velutipes) stand out as one of the popular and nutrient-rich fungi. With its wide array of essential nutrients, F. velutipes has gained recognition as a potential source of bioactive compounds that could promote health. In this article, we delve into the world of F. velutipes, exploring its nutritional values and the potential benefits it holds for well-being.
Flammulina velutipes, also known as the velvet shank or winter mushroom, belong to a diverse group of mushrooms collectively referred to as macrofungi. These fungi possess distinctive fruiting bodies and are recognized for their antibacterial and antifungal properties, which enable them to thrive in their natural habitats. With an estimated 140,000 mushroom species on Earth, F. velutipes represents just a fraction of the known varieties, suggesting a vast realm of untapped potential within the mushroom kingdom.[R]
Nutritionally, F.velutipes offers remarkable value. It boasts a high protein content, enriched with essential amino acids and dietary fiber while being low in fat. Additionally, F.velutipes is a rich source of various vitamins, including B1, B2, B12, C, D, and E, which collectively contribute to medicinal mushrooms’ overall health-promoting properties. These bioactive compounds work synergistically, providing a holistic approach to supporting well-being.[R]
|Molar Mass||14 kDa|
How Does Flammulina Velutipes Work?
One of the key bioactive components found in F.velutipes is a polysaccharide, which has garnered significant interest in the field of food and medicine research. Polysaccharides have demonstrated diverse bioactivities, including antioxidant, immune-regulating, anti-inflammatory, liver-protective, anti-tumor, and memory-enhancing effects While F.velutipes has been traditionally used as a delicious culinary ingredient, a nutraceutical, and even a medicinal resource in Asia comprehensive studies on its structure and bioactivities are still underway. Therefore, it is crucial to further explore the potential of F.velutipes and its applications in authorized drugs, functional foods, and nutricosmetics worldwide.[R]
Flammulina Velutipes Research
Numerous studies have been conducted on the potential application of Flammulina velutipes. Below follows some of the relevant findings:
Flammulina Velutipes on Respiratory Syncytial Virus
Respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) poses a significant health burden, particularly among young children, by causing bronchiolitis and subsequent asthma-like symptoms. The development of preventive therapies targeting RSV has proven to be a formidable task. Recent research has revealed the potential of a natural compound derived from F.velutipes, known as fungal immunomodulatory protein FIP-fve, in mitigating RSV infection and its associated immune response. Researchers examined both in vivo and in vitro settings. They observed that oral administration of FIP-fve in BALB/c mice reduced RSV-induced airway hyperresponsiveness (AHR), airway inflammation, and expression of the inflammatory cytokine interleukin 6 (IL-6) in the bronchoalveolar lavage fluid (BALF). These results suggest that FIP-fve can alleviate the respiratory pathogenesis caused by RSV infection.[R]
While the results of the mouse study are encouraging, further work is needed to fully understand the efficacy and possible application of FIP-fve from the fruiting body in possibly decreasing RSV infection and its accompanying inflammation in human therapy.
Flammulina Velutipes on Skin
A study was conducted to examine the effects of F.velutipes on the test subject’s skin. The study involved a group of male and female test subjects. Half of the participants formed the test group (n = 15) and were administered a test product containing F. velutipes dry powder, while the other half comprised the placebo group (n = 15), who were given a placebo product (similar in appearance but lacking F. velutipes, substituted with plum fruit paste). The study was to evaluate the changes in skin hydration over a four-week period. The findings revealed a significant difference between the test group and the placebo group in terms of increased skin hydration (p = 0.033). The test group, which consumed the F. velutipes-infused product, exhibited a significantly larger increase in skin hydration compared to the placebo group. These results indicate that F.velutipes may possibly possess physiological functions that contribute to improved skin moisture. the study provides preliminary evidence suggesting that F. velutipes, particularly the Oki-Shirayuki 919 variety, may have positive effects on skin hydration.[R] As the field of nutricosmetics continues to evolve, further research will help uncover the full potential of F.velutipes and its role in possibly promoting healthy and radiant skin.
Flammulina velutipes as an antioxidant
Researchers have recently focused on a unique polysaccharide derived from this fungus to evaluate its antioxidant In this in vitro study, various techniques were employed to isolate and characterize the polysaccharide. The study conducted on F.velutipes polysaccharide I-A (FVP I-A) revealed significant antioxidant activity. The polysaccharide exhibited the ability to scavenge hydroxyl radicals and superoxide anions, indicating its potential as a free radical scavenger. The scavenging activity against these reactive oxygen species is crucial as they are known to contribute to oxidative stress, which can lead to various health issues. By effectively neutralizing these harmful radicals, FVP I-A may help protect cells and tissues from oxidative damage.
Furthermore, FVP I-A demonstrated a notable reducing power, which suggests its ability to donate electrons and inhibit oxidative processes. The reducing power of FVP I-A contributes to its overall antioxidant capacity. By participating in electron transfer reactions, FVP I-A may help maintain cellular redox balance and protect against oxidative stress-induced damage.[R]
These findings highlight the promising antioxidant potential of FVP I-A derived from F.velutipes. However, further studies are necessary to elucidate the underlying mechanisms of its antioxidant activity and explore its application in combating oxidative stress-related conditions.
Flammulina Velutipes on Immunomodulatory Effects
In the study mentioned earlier, Flammulina velutipes polysaccharide I-A (FVP I-A) exhibited immunomodulatory effects. The polysaccharide demonstrated the ability to enhance both non-specific and specific immune responses in vitro. FVP I-A, derived from Flammulina velutipes, was found to have positive effects on the immune system. It increased the production of nitric oxide (NO) by RAW264.7 macrophages. Nitric oxide is an important molecule that helps regulate immune responses and plays a role in various bodily processes.
Additionally, FVP I-A boosted the secretion of interleukin-1β, interleukin-6, and tumor necrosis factor-α by RAW264.7 macrophages. These substances are crucial for immune regulation and inflammation. The increased secretion of these substances indicates that FVP I-A can potentially modulate immune responses and support the functioning of the immune system. Moreover, FVP I-A showed the ability to promote the growth of lymphocytes. Lymphocytes are vital components of the immune system and are responsible for adaptive immunity. By enhancing lymphocyte growth, FVP I-A may contribute to the activation of immune responses and help defend against harmful pathogens. Furthermore, when combined with concanavalin A and lipopolysaccharides, FVP I-A had a synergistic effect on the proliferation of mouse lymphocytes. This suggests that FVP I-A can work together with other immune stimulators to enhance immune responses and increase the growth of immune cells.[R]
The immunomodulatory effects of FVP I-A hold promise for its potential application in immune-related conditions. Further research is necessary to explore the underlying mechanisms of these effects and to assess the polysaccharide’s efficacy in vivo models and human studies.
Flammulina Velutipes on Growth Performance & Gut Health
A study was conducted to determine the effects of supplementing weaned piglets’ diets with Flammulina velutipes stem waste (FVS). In the experiment, 150 piglets were divided into five groups and fed various diets containing 2.5% to 10% FVS. Surprisingly, the results revealed that piglets fed diets containing 3% or less FVS did not differ significantly from those fed a control diet in terms of growth performance. FVS supplementation increased the production of short-chain fatty acids (SCFAs) in the feces, which are known to have positive effects on gastrointestinal health.[R]
In another 70-day study involving maturing layer hens, there were no statistically significant differences between experimental groups in terms of average daily feed intake, body weight gain, and feed conversion ratio. The inclusion of Flammulina velutipes waste (FVW) in the hens’ diets had no negative effect on their overall growth performance, according to these results. [R]
Each study adds to our understanding of how to best include Flammulina velutipes by-products into animal diets. The piglets in the study did not show any significant growth benefits from FVS supplementation, but the good effect of FVS on SCFA production was highlighted, which may possibly lead to better gut health.
Flammulina velutipes as Antibiotic Alternative
A similar study was conducted in Hen, The study revealed interesting results regarding the immune response. The groups that were fed with Flammulina velutipes waste (FVW) showed significantly higher antibody titers against Newcastle disease and infectious bronchitis compared to the control and antibiotic groups. On day 28, the 6% FVW group had significantly higher levels of serum immunoglobulins (IgA and IgG) compared to the control and antibiotic groups. Similarly, on day 70, the FVW-fed groups had elevated levels of IgA compared to the control group, and higher levels of IgG compared to both the control and antibiotic groups. Additionally, both the 4% and 6% FVW groups had significantly higher levels of IgM compared to the control and antibiotic groups in both experimental periods.[R]
Moreover, the concentrations of serum cytokines interleukin (IL)-2 and tumor necrosis factor-α were significantly higher in both the 4% and 6% FVW groups compared to the control and antibiotic groups. IL-4 levels were significantly higher in the FVW groups compared to the control group, and IL-6 levels were significantly higher in the 6% FVW group compared to both the control and antibiotic groups.[R]
These findings contribute to the growing research on alternative feed ingredients that may positively affect animal health and reduce the need for antibiotics. FVW demonstrates its potential as a sustainable and beneficial component in poultry diets by enhancing the immune system’s performance while supporting optimal growth. However, further investigations are needed to understand the mechanisms by which FVW influences immune responses and to determine the best inclusion levels for growing layer hens.
Is Flammulina Velutipes safe?
Flammulina velutipes, more commonly known as enoki mushroom, has a high safety profile.
In addition to a lack of consistent evidence of direct benefits, the potential long-term effects of using Flammulina velutipes are also unknown. Purerawz sells Flammulina velutipes for research purposes only.
How are Flammulina Velutipes cultivated?
Cultivation Flammulina velutipes, start by isolating suitable wood logs as the substrate. Obtain fresh spores or mycelium from well-maintained stock cultures. Inoculate the substrate with the spores or mycelium and maintain a cold environment for optimal growth. Provide adequate moisture, minerals, and isolation. As the mycelium proliferates, primordia will form, developing into slender stems and caps. Monitor temperature and humidity during the fruiting stage. This process can also be applied to similar mushrooms like Pleurotus ostreatus.
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This information is for educational purposes only and does not constitute medical advice. THE PRODUCTS DESCRIBED HEREIN ARE FOR LABORATORY AND RESEARCH USE ONLY. All clinical research must be conducted with oversight from the appropriate Institutional Review Board (IRB). All preclinical research must be conducted with oversight from the appropriate Institutional Animal Care and Use Committee (IACUC) following the guidelines of the Animal Welfare Act (AWA).
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