N-Acetyl-Cysteine Ethyl Ester – Product Details
N-Acetyl-Cysteine Ethyl Ester (NACE) is a versatile and widely used compound with a molecular weight of 163.2 g/mol. It is also the esterified form of N-acetyl-L-cysteine that increases cellular permeability and generates NAC and cysteine. It has the potential to replace NAC as a mucolytic agent and as an antioxidant related to the powerful antioxidant glutathione.
In vivo and in vitro, N-acetyl cysteine (NAC) is used a lot as a nutritional supplement and as an antioxidant and a potent protective antioxidant that helps to protect cells from oxidative damage. NAC is a precursor of L-cysteine, which is needed for the biosynthesis of glutathione content. As it directly eliminates free radicals, particularly oxygen radicals. It is also proposed as a potential treatment for various diseases caused by the production of free oxygen radicals. Additionally, it is a safe and long-lasting mucolytic medication that softens thick mucus discharges. It has been used alone or in conjunction with other drugs to treat a variety of diseases.[<R>] NACE is a powerful antioxidant that helps to increase intracellular glutathione levels.
|N Acetyl-Cysteine Ethyl Ester Powder|
|Molar Mass||191.2 g/mol|
|IUPAC Name||ethyl (2R)-2-acetamido-3-sulfanylpropanoate|
How Does N-Acetyl-Cysteine Ethyl Ester Work?
Complex and undefined are the molecular processes through which NAC exerts its varied effects. It has been demonstrated that NAC interacts with various metabolic processes. It functions as a precursor of cysteine and replenishes cellular GSH levels as its primary mechanism. In addition, semiquinones, HOCl, HNO, and heavy metals are detoxified. Importantly, NAC does not react with NO, superoxide, H2O2, or peroxynitrite under physiological circumstances. [R]
Another explains that Cysteine that was derived from NAC undergoes desulfuration, which results in the production of hydrogen sulfide. Hydrogen sulfide, in turn, is oxidized within mitochondria to produce sulfane sulfur species. Therefore, this points to the possibility that sulfane sulfur species are the actual mediators of the immediate antioxidative and cytoprotective effects that NAC provides.[R]
Comparative study of NAC and N-Acetyl-Cysteine Ethyl Ester
N-acetyl-L-cysteine (NAC) is one of the most extensively studied antioxidants, and it has recently been proposed to have therapeutic value in treating Age-Related Macular Degeneration(AMD) by mitigating oxidative damage in the retinal pigmented epithelium (RPE). However, due to its low lipophilicity, NAC has low cell permeability. In terms of enhanced cell permeability, it is not nac but N-acetyl-L-cysteine ethyl ester (NACET) possesses more favorable pharmacokinetic properties and bioavailability in vivo, where it can cross the blood–brain barrier , and as a glutathione (GSH) enhancer in human primary endothelial cells . In fact, NACET rapidly enters the cells, where it is immediately de-esterified to NAC, which is then slowly de-acetylated, supplying the cells with a continuous supply of cysteine, the precursor of GSH, a major component of mammalian cells’ antioxidant defense. [R]
N-Acetyl-Cysteine Ethyl Ester Research
Numerous animal and human studies have been conducted on the potential application of N-Acetyl-Cysteine Ethyl Ester . Below follows some of the relevant findings:
N-Acetyl-Cysteine Ethyl Ester on Paracetamol Intoxication
In a study comparing NAC and NACET, rats were given paracetamol, and the results showed that markers of liver damage, such as GOT/AST, GPT/ALT, and LDH, were consistently lower in the NACET group as compared to the NAC group.
Based on these experiments, it appears that N-Acetyl-Cysteine Ethyl Ester may be able to protect these tissues from the damage caused by paracetamol in a more effective manner than NAC. [R]
NAC on Psychiatric Disorders
Neuropsychiatry offers a wonderful opportunity to show the molecular intricacy of NAC. This is mostly due to the multifactorial etiology of many neuropsychiatric illnesses, which includes inflammatory pathways, glutamatergic transmission, oxidative stress, GSH metabolism, mitochondrial function, neurotrophins, and apoptosis. Since NAC is known to interact with most of these pathways, so it has been investigated as a potential treatment for neuropsychiatric illnesses. In fact, more than twenty clinical trials (randomized or otherwise) have adopted NAC as an adjuvant therapy for a variety of illnesses in the past decade. [R]
It is still suggested to add more research in determining its ability to permeate the cell membrane and the blood–brain barrier, as well as explaining its interactions with components of cell signaling pathways,
NAC on Improving the Immune System
In post-menopausal women Administration of NAC improved immunological capabilities, as demonstrated by increased phagocytic capacity, leukocytes chemotaxis, natural killer function, and lowered TNF- and interleukin-8 (IL-8) levels. In postmenopausal women, a brief supply of NAC (i.e., 2-4 months) at the amount utilized may result in a lasting enhancement of immunological defense, most likely through raising the leukocyte glutathione pool. [R] The improve intracellular glutathione levels helps protect cells from damage caused by free radicals and oxidative stress helping improve the immune system.
NAC on Heart Disease
Several studies looked at the possible health benefits of NAC for people with heart disease. There have been mixed reports about what NAC does to the levels of homocysteine and lipoprotein in plasma. Animal studies have shown that giving rats NAC for a long time can improve both the heart and brain mitochondria. In the heart mitochondria of old rats given NAC, there was a full recovery of complex activity.
This study gives the first information on the effects of a long-term treatment with N-acetylcysteine and details the remarkable tissue specificity of the decrease of bioenergetic activities in isolated mitochondria from aged rats. [R]
This study is done on rat models only in order to demonstrate that NAC is effective as a long-term treatment further research needs to be done, particularly in human models.
N-Acetyl-Cysteine Ethyl Ester on Retinal Pigment Epithelial Cells Oxidative Damage
N-Acetyl-Cysteine Ethyl Ester may play an important role in preventing and treating retinal diseases associated with oxidative stress, and it may represent a valid and more efficient alternative to NAC in therapeutic protocols. Even though experiments in animal models of AMD are still required, the data suggest that NACET may play an important role in preventing and treating retinal diseases.
Oxidative damage was also eliminated in a study on Red blood cell (RBC) storage. It was found that it is possible to prevent damage caused by oxidative stress by storing red blood cells with vitamin C and N-acetylcysteine.[R]
There is limited scientific evidence available on the effects of NACE, and more research is needed to fully understand its benefits as it protects retinal cells from oxidative damage. [R]
N-Acetyl-Cysteine Ethyl Ester on Muscle Function
Skeletal muscle degenerates, inflames, and regenerates after injury. A damaged microenvironment produces excessive reactive oxygen species, which slows regeneration and function, causing fibrosis and impairment.
In a study in which adult female Lewis rats were injured with compartment syndrome, the rats were used as research subjects. In muscles that were treated with NAC, there was a considerable improvement in muscular function, and there was a significant reduction in tissue fibrosis.
It is important to note that while NAC has been shown to have these potential health benefits, more research is needed to confirm its efficacy and establish recommended dosages. [R]
NAC on Anti-mutagenic and Anti-neoplastic Activities
NAC has been shown to be anti-mutagenic and anti-neoplastic. It does this by blocking electrophilic metabolites and direct-acting compounds from either endogenous or exogenous sources. It also slows down the metabolism of several xenobiotics and protects DNA-dependent nuclear enzymes from mutations. So, because NAC is both a nucleophile and a SH donor, it seems to have protective effects by changing how glutathione is used and how mutagenic and carcinogenic compounds are broken down in the body. This may be important in the clinic because NAC is given to people, like cigarette smokers, who are more often exposed to things that deplete GSH and cause cancer [R].
NAC effects need further scientific support thus more study is required to fully understand its advantages.
Pregnancy: Inhaled or ingested N-acetyl cysteine may be safe during pregnancy. N-acetyl cysteine crosses the placenta without harming the fetus. More research is still needed for the safety on pregnancy.
Allergy: Don’t use N-acetyl cysteine if you are allergic to acetyl cysteine.
Asthma: If inhaled or taken orally, N-acetyl cysteine may cause bronchospasm in those with asthma.
Bleeding disorder. N-acetyl cysteine may slow clotting. N-acetyl cysteine may increase bleeding and bruising in bleeding disorders.
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