Oxytocin – Product Information
Oxytocin is a 9-amino acid peptide that is constructed primarily in the hypothalamic neurons, specifically the magnocellular oxytocin (OT) neurons in the supraoptic and paraventricular nuclei, and is secreted by the posterior pituitary gland.
It is also secreted from other tissues, such as the testes and ovaries. New research studies have suggested it may boost cognitive performance, decrease cardiovascular risk, and disturb the effects of diabetes.
|Molar Mass||1007.19 g·mol−1|
What is Oxytocin?
A peptide hormone is made up of 9 amino acids. It is produced in the hypothalamus, the region of the brain that controls heart rate, blood pressure, and digestion. OT is released into the bloodstream by the posterior pituitary gland.
OT was discovered by Sir Henry Dale in 1996. He found that extracts from the human posterior pituitary gland contracted the uterus of a pregnant cat. It was also Sir Henry Dale who coined the name Oxytocin, which means “swift birth” in Greek. [R]
This peptide hormone controls many functions. It has an effect on childbirth, milk ejection during breastfeeding, and bonding with newborns in humans. It also plays an essential role in sexual arousal, romantic attachment, and other social interactions. [R]
It is also known as “the love hormone”. A study in 2012 observed that its levels were significantly higher in new lovers than in singles. Findings from the study suggest that it may play an important role in the first stages of romantic attachment. [R]
Pure Rawz sells this product for research uses only.
How Does Oxytocin Work?
Research suggests that it interacts with neural pathways responsible for processing motivationally relevant stimuli. In particular, it impacts dopaminergic activity in the mesocorticolimbic dopamine system, which is crucial for reward, motivated behavior, and expression of affiliate behaviors. [R]
In women, the hormone stimulates the muscles of the uterus and breast to contract. This stimulates the contraction of uterine muscles during labor and childbirth and the contractions of the breast tissue after childbirth, a process that aids in lactation. [R]
In the male mammal, this systemic hormone could peripherally stimulate smooth muscles of the male reproductive tract, but could also reflect central effects in the brain modulating sexual behavior. It also reportedly helps move sperm in males. [R] [R]
It is one of the few hormones that create a positive feedback loop. This means the higher the concentration of Oxytocin in the body, the higher its rate of release. For instance, when the uterus contracts during childbirth, more OT is released. [R]
Oxytocin peptide has attracted multiple human trials over the decades. Multiple animal studies have also been conducted on this peptide hormone. While all of them have shown that OT holds immense potential, the FDA hasn’t approved it for human consumption.
Oxytocin and Sexual Arousal
A systematic review was conducted to find levels of Oxytocin related to human sexual arousal and orgasm. The researchers noted that given the sexual arousal evoked by self-stimulation in which sexual fantasies play an essential role, it is possible to postulate a rule of it in sexual desire. [R]
A 1994 study found increases in plasma OT at orgasm – in both men and women. The positive correlation is consistent with a possible functional role for OT in sexual response. Findings from another study support the hypothesis that it plays a major role in human sexual arousal. [R][R]
Furthermore, a rat study has substantiated the connection between Oxytocin and penile erection. It was found that intracerebroventricular (i.c.v.) injections of OT, in doses ranging from 5 to 90ng, induced penile erection and yawning in male rats. [R]
Oxytocin and Trust
Research in non-human mammals suggests that it has a key role in social attachment and affiliation. It was found that intranasal OT administration causes a substantial increase in trusting behavior. Subjects given OT seem to be better able to overcome trust obstacles. [R]
Another study suggests that intranasal administration of it increases trust in humans, thereby greatly increasing the benefits of social interactions. These results concur with animal research suggesting an essential role for it as a biological basis for pro-social approach behavior. [R]
To establish a link between OT and trust in humans, researchers administered OT to participants of trust and risk games. Participants with lower AQ scores (less severe autistic traits) exhibited a greater tendency toward trusting behaviors after OT administration than those with higher AQ scores. [R]
Oxytocin and Romantic Bonding
Only four studies measured or manipulated Oxytocin and subsequently measured behavior or subjective responses related to interpersonal bonding processes in human adult romantic relationships. All provide promising evidence in support of the thesis that OT facilitates the bonding process. [R]
For instance, one of the four studies positively links plasma OT with self-reported hugging of the partner. The study also found that more frequent partner hugs and higher oxytocin levels are linked to lower blood pressure and heart rate in premenopausal women. [R]
Findings from another study suggest that Oxytocin may play an important role in the first stages of romantic attachment. Researchers conducting the study observed that OT levels were significantly higher in new lovers compared to singles. [R]
Oxytocin and Diabetes
A recent review highlighted the role of Oxytocin in diabetes and its complication, such as diabetic osteopathy. It noted that OT may have positive metabolic effects based on the change in glucose metabolism, lipid profile, and insulin sensitivity.
OT may modify glucose uptake and insulin sensitivity both through direct and indirect means. So, the activation of the Oxytocin receptor pathway by infusion of OT, OT analogs, or OT agonists may represent a promising approach in the treatment of diabetes.
Furthermore, results from a randomized pilot clinical trial show that OT and its analogs have multi-levels of effects in boosting insulin sensitivity, weight control, and insulin secretion. OT and its analogs bear the potential for being developed as therapeutic peptides for diabetes management. [R]
Oxytocin and Wound Healing
According to a study conducted on 37 couples, higher OT levels were associated with more positive communication behaviors. Furthermore, individuals in the upper oxytocin quartile showed faster wound healing than participants in the lower OT quartiles. [R]
A cell-based study also determined Oxytocin to possess wound-healing capability. It found that Bacteria-triggered OT serves to activate host CD4+Foxp3+CD25+ immune T regulatory cells conveying transplantable wound healing capacity to naïve Rag2-deficient animals. [R]
More research is needed to validate wound healing OT effects.
Oxytocin and Muscle Maintenance
A study has found that Oxytocin is required for proper muscle tissue regeneration and homeostasis. It was further shown that the genetic lack of OT leads to premature sarcopenia and that levels of OT receptors in muscle stem cells dramatically decline with age.
It was also found that short-term systemic OT delivery restores muscle regeneration in old mice. This work reveals a potentially novel and safe way to combat or prevent skeletal muscle aging. [R]
Oxytocin and Weight Loss
To study its impact on body weight, lipid metabolism, and insulin sensitivity, OT was induced in high-fat diet-induced obese mice. A dose-dependent decrease in body weight gain was observed. OT also decreased tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-a) in M1-derived macrophages. [R]
Another study provided proof-of-concept data demonstrating an Oxytocin analog with extended in-vivo stability to reduce food intake and body weight in DIO animals. [R]
Oxytocin & Cognitive and Behavioral Functioning
A systematic review of twenty-two studies found that OT consistently attenuated brain activity, particularly fear, in response to negative emotional faces, compared with the placebo. While in women, OT enhanced activity. [R]
Pure Rawz sells Oxytocin for testing and laboratory experimentation only.
Is Oxytocin a research chemical?
Yes. This designation restricts the use of OT to educational and scientific research.
What are the dangers of oxytocin deficiency?
Low endogenous oxytocin may lead to low empathy, per a 2016 study. Researchers concluded this by examining patients with neurological conditions that result in a low level of oxytocin. [R]
Does Oxytocin weaken heart muscles?
According to a study, continuous OT delivery improves cardiac healing and cardiac work, stimulates angiogenesis, and reduces inflammation in rats with experimentally induced MI. Aside from that, the beneficial effect of OT may include the increase in glucose uptake by cardiac stem cells. [R]
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Oxytocin, a peptide hormone, plays various functions in the body. While it is known for its function in the regulation of lactation and childbirth, oxytocin also plays a key role in modulating various social behaviors.